Glossary

1035 Exchange

A method of exchanging insurance-related assets without triggering a taxable event. Cash-value life insurance policies and annuity contracts are two products that may qualify for a 1035 exchange.

401(k) Plan

A qualified retirement plan available to eligible employees of companies. 401(k) plans allow eligible employees to defer taxation on a specific percentage of their income that is to be put toward retirement savings; taxes on this deferred income and on any earnings the account generates are deferred until the funds are withdrawn—normally in retirement. Employers may match part or all of an employee’s contributions. Employees may be responsible for investment selections and enjoy the direct tax savings.

401(k) Loan

A loan taken from the assets within a 401(k) account. 401(k) loans charge interest and are normally paid back through payroll deductions. If the borrower leaves an employer before a 401(k) loan has been repaid, the full amount of the loan is generally due. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, it is considered a distribution, and ordinary income taxes may be due, along with any applicable tax penalties.

403(b) Plan

A 403(b) plan is similar to a 401(k). A 403(b) is a qualified retirement plan available to employees of non-profit and government organizations.

Short term investments are belongings that can be converted into cash or can be sold within a specific less time period, mainly within 1-3 years. Common instruments for short term investment comprise short term bonds, Treasury bills, and other money market funds. Short term trading or day trading necessitates a momentous degree of speculation and thus, substantial risk.

short-term investment is an investment that will be established to give cash within a year time period and is well thought out as a liquid. When someone invests in short term stock and bonds, the thinking is that these belongings can be cashed in swiftly. An asset is liquid if the owner can voluntarily access it, and it has a reputable market where prices cannot be deployed by one buyer or seller. The dairy industry is an industry that does just this. The sellers have the capability to transfer ownership swiftly, and buyers can’t simply impact the market price of the calves.

Instances of investments that we are most acquainted within the short term are:

  • Money markets

  • Savings accounts

  • Certificates of deposit

  • Treasury bills

  • Government bonds

Which we’ll take a closer look at now.

Instances of Short Term Investments

Money markets are accounts that comprise exchanges among financial institutions and companies, not individuals. Individuals are capable to invest small amounts in money markets but can’t directly trade them. They’re typically for very large sums and mature swiftly. Instances are treasury bills, municipal notes, and federal funds. Exchanges assortment from $5 million dollars to a billion dollars.

Savings accounts are low-risk payment accounts held by a bank that gives the owner a small rate of interest.

Certificates of deposit, or CDs, are promissory notes from banks that have definite maturity dates and interest rates. Penalties are experienced when a note is accessed prior to the maturity date. When become mature, the certificate will be worth it’s principal and interest. Backed by banks, these are low-risk investments.

Treasury bills, or T-bills, are owed to the consumer by the U.S. government. These mature in lower than a year and range from $1,000 to $5 million dollars. After maturation, the T-bill includes the principal and interest. The longer the investment, the elevated the interest rate. T-bills are mostly sold to increase money for government-funded infrastructure projects.

A business may invest cash in stocks of other organizations. Or, a company may purchase other types of corporate or government securities. If these investments are attained for long term purposes, or perhaps to begin some form of control over another entity, the investments are classified as noncurrent belongings. When the investments are attained with the simple intent of producing benefits by reselling the investment in the very near future, such investments are categorized as current belongings.

Such investments are primarily recorded at cost including brokerage fees. But, the value of these items may vacillate. Subsequent to initial procurement, short term investments are to be reported at their fair value. The vacillation in value is reported in the income statement. This is mostly called mark to market or fair value accounting. Fair value is designated as the price that would be obtained from the sale of an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants.

Advantages of Short Term Investment

Short term investment offers flexibility to the investor as they do not require to wait for the security to mature in order to get cash. As compared to long term investments which can be liquidated by selling in the secondary market, but the investor receives lower profits. It is less risky as money invested per transaction is markedly lesser.

Downsides of Short Term Investment

Short term investment comes with great costs due to a high transaction volume and their corresponding brokerage commission fees. Taxes and inflation also lessen the returns earned via short term investment.

It involves a certain level of proficiency and time, as investors must closely monitor price movements and identify buy and/or sale spots.

Tactics for Short Term Investments

1. Identifying the right trade

It is imperative to seek out trades that involve minimal risk. Extensive market research is imperative to distinguish potential candidates competently. The process includes the following:

Monitoring the moving average of the price of a given stock over a period

Usually, the cycles include -15, -50, -100, and -200 day periods. A stock with a skyward sloping moving average can be bought, while those with a downward sloping or flattening curve can be shorted.

Market cycles and trends must be closely monitored. Negative trends suggest little purchasing opportunities and vice versa.

Outside situations can employ a huge effect on stock market prices. Thus, it is imperative to follow and take cues from business-related news, such as lawsuit settlements, new regulations, scandals, and changing political environments.

2. Divergence

Divergence is a method of controlling or alleviating risk while maximizing returns. It involves a mixture of various types of belongings with varying risks and returns. Divergence works only in situations where the types of belongings invested in are mutually exclusive. For instance, a portfolio that includes investments in multiple securities in a similar industry, i.e., that are correlated, is not considered diversified.

3. Hedging

Hedging is a process that seeks to eradicate all the risks associated with an asset. Derivative financial instruments such as options, futures, and swaps (that derive their value from an underlying asset) permit investors to insure against the risk associated with the asset in question.

4. Exhausted selling

Exhausted selling is a niche tactic that is commonly only employed by experienced day traders. It is generally done in the aftermath of periods of panic selling prompted by recession alarms or other external threats. Investors may purchase at the unusually less prices and earn a turnover soon after. It is possible because the low prices generated due to panic selling do not reflect the real underlying value of the asset, which may be much higher.

5. Real-time forex trading

Real-time forex trading is a form of assumption where an investor flutters on the future price movements of a given currency. It uses technical indicators to gauge expected fluctuations in the exchange ratios of currencies. It is a kind of algorithmic trading that means it cannot be done without the use of erudite software.